African American Women and Cancer

Introduction

The existing disparities regarding healthcare services provided in the United States is a critical issue related to such phenomena as racial and gender discrimination. From this perspective, African American women are the most vulnerable population group. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 73,030 cases of cancer a year among blacks result in death (DeSantis et al., 2019, para. 1). To address the problem, it is vital to consider the dynamics of the example of a smaller population group. Hence, the objective is to reveal the disparities in healthcare services between African American women and other population groups. The research question is: What changes can hospitals make to decrease the mortality of cancer among them?

Methods

The best approach for this study is the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. It proved to be efficient in other studies related to cancer (Ferlay et al., 2019). Quantitative methods will be used to reveal the mortality rate among African American women with this condition. Qualitative methods, in turn, will help to analyze hospitals’ policies and their efficiency regarding the treatment of such patients.

It will be a cross-sectional study with samples and primary data (medical history and surveys) from the chosen health facilities. Its strengths are opportunities for the use of various samples (Ferlay et al., 2019). The selection of samples will be made with the help of the medical personnel, as they are familiar with the problems of this population group. The units of analysis are individual patients. The rationale is the need to improve conditions for African American women with cancer.

Concepts/Constructs/Variables

The research implies two categories of constructs: the mortality rate in the samples from different hospitals as quantitative data and patients’ satisfaction with healthcare services as qualitative data. Regarding variables, the mortality rate and level of satisfaction will be dependent, and hospitals will be independent. The covariates are the patients’ age and financial situation (Ferlay et al., 2019). Further analysis of these indicators and the feedback will allow measuring the efficiency of their work. Hence, the research concept is revealing the changes that will enable hospitals to decrease the mortality rate among African American women with cancer.

Ethical Implications

The possible ethical issues are related to the confidentiality of the patients’ medical data. However, they can be managed through the reception of the written informed consent from African American women staying at the hospitals. The issue that is difficult to resolve is the legality of spreading information about deceased patients. It will be resolved through the request to their relatives, or the study will lack specificity.

Limitations

The study design implies certain limitations, which can be eliminated in the future. Thus, for example, the samples of participants will be limited due to the use of data only from several hospitals. In this case, the results of a similar study conducted in other healthcare facilities would differ like in other similar studies (DeSantis et al., 2019). This circumstance indicates the possibility of reliability issues. Moreover, the sample size might be insufficient for making more precise conclusions rather than providing general information.

Innovation

The uniqueness of the proposed study methods is conditional upon the use of both qualitative and quantitative data. It is complemented by the inclusion of several samples that differ depending on the medical institution (Ferlay et al., 2019). Such a global approach might lead to a lack of specific outcomes. However, due to the absence of previous studies of cancer among African American women, it will be sufficient in terms of implications for further research. This fact also contributes to the uniqueness of the research question and the scope of the study. As a result, the scientific community will benefit from the consideration of a specific population group, allowing for the practical implementation of the received data to improve the population’s health.

References

DeSantis, C. E., Miller, K. D., Goding Sauer, A., Jemal, A., & Siegel, R. L. (2019). Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2019. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 69(3), 211-233.

Ferlay, J., Colombet, M., Soerjomataram, I., Mathers, C., Parkin, D. M., Piñeros, M., Znaor, A., & Bray, F. (2019). Estimating the global cancer incidence and mortality in 2018: GLOBOCAN sources and methods. International Journal of Cancer, 144(8), 1941-1953.

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